after those three years of research, i'd think he would have learned the difference between a cow and a steer.
people, please, if you're going to write or talk about the beef industry, learn to use the correct terminology:
bull: an intact male destined for breeding
calf: a young bovine of either gender less than a year old
cow: a mature female that has had at least one calf
first-calf heifer: a young female pregnant with or nursing her first calf; first-calf heifers often need extra help with calving
heifer: a young female
steer: a castrated male
yearling: a bovine of either gender between one and two years old
copied directly from page 21 of bill niman's niman ranch cookbook. since bill hands copies of that book out like candy, i'm pretty sure jsf was given one on his visit to their house...
these days, the vast majority of the beef we eat comes from steers, not cows. cows usually become breeders or dairy animals, but not meat animals.